Abstract № 4 (90) 2021

 

 

 

 

SOCIUM

 

 

Ershov Yu.G. Cycles of history: Russia’s tragic experience // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 07—19. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-07-19.

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of the cyclical nature of socio-historical development. Cyclicity is positioned as a universal feature of social development, making it possible to use the “lessons of history” in forecasting the future. Particular attention is paid to analyzing the causes of chronic disruptions in Russia’s modernization. The specificity of the Russian history cyclical nature is seen in the action of the institutional matrix, which unites authoritarianism and the suppression of private property into a monolithic whole.

Keywords:

cycle,

history,

authoritarianism,

modernization,

pseudo phenomenon

 

 

Sandler D.G. Analyzing the state of regional higher education systems // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 20—37. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-20-37.

Abstract

Introduction. Higher education systems at the present stage of development are facing new serious challenges. On the one hand, universities function as independent units, on the other, they are part of the regional system, they attract and share the attention of the stakeholders interested in the system (applicants, students, research and teaching staff, business structures, etc.). The purpose of the study is to assess the competitiveness of regional higher education systems through the formed system of indicators, as well as to draw conclusions about the degree of uniformity in the development of these networks.

Methods. To assess the state of the higher education system in Russia, the author uses an indicative method of analysis, which makes it possible to determine the degree of compliance of the indicator values achieved by now with the criteria that meet the set requirements for the development of society.

Scientific novelty of the research. The novelty of the research consists in forming a set of indicators, which makes it possible to draw conclusions about the competitiveness of regional systems and the degree of their development uniformity, as well as the number of universities in the regional system and their influence on the entire system, according to their uniform development relative to each other.

Results. Following the results of diagnosing the regional higher education systems, the author identifies the regions-leaders and the regions-outsiders. The diagnostic results are compared with the data of international rankings.

Conclusions. The conclusion states that the region with fewer but equally developing universities (for example, the Belgorod region or the Republic of Tatarstan) have higher indicators of competitiveness. On the contrary, regional higher education systems, represented by a large number of universities, but with unevenly developing performance indicators, are characterized as less competitive, i.e. the performance indicators of the leading university are leveled within the system as a whole.

Keywords:

higher education,

diagnostic technique,

indicative analysis,

regional comparison,

competitiveness

 

 

Borisov S.V. Subjectivity and adaptability of modern youth: possibilities of measuring (examining) non-physical quantities // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 38—46. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-38-46.

Abstract

It should be noted that the current situation in Russia with regard to the socio-psychological adaptation of young people (age 17—25) to the changing digital environment does not find a proper theoretical and practical solution. Therefore, representatives of the socio-humanitarian sciences need their own methodology for measuring the adaptability of young people as the basis of their creative life. We believe that the key strategic line in the development of adaptability is to support of a young person formation as a subject of his own life. Despite the challenges of the times, the problem of adaptation in the aspect of subjectivity is limited to the spread of “myths” about the digital society and the declarative statements arising from them without a proper strategic and tactical scientific program. In this regard, the fundamental scientific result of our project will be developing, testing and evaluating the effectiveness of the methodology for measuring the socio-psychological adaptation of young people, developed on the basis of digital anthropology and metrology, which can be used as an interdisciplinary model of socio-humanitarian examination of subjectivity and adaptability. The assessment scale can be based on the idea of a standard (value, meaning), which form subjectivity, are formulated by the subject, determine the direction of his activity, his abilities, the project of his being. The model of this complex non-physical quantity can be represented through the concept of supervenience. Supervenience enables us to explain reductively through functional analysis. By explaining how functions are performed, we will explain the phenomenon. The cognitive model of subjectivity is such an abstractly causally organized system, the mechanisms of which are sufficient for implementing the corresponding functions. Then this model becomes logically possible, and, therefore, empirically confirmed (or refuted). Thus, it becomes possible to theoretically substantiate and experimentally prove that subjectivity is the basis of adaptability (strong option) or adaptability is closely related to subjectivity (weak option) and that for each type of adaptive activity the basis is a certain type of subjectivity. On the basis of this, an interdisciplinary model of socio-humanitarian examination of subjectivity and adaptability will be developed.

Keywords:

subjectivity,

adaptability,

expertise,

digital humanities,

cultural environment,

projective activity

 

 

Kamalieva I.R. The phenomenon of the patient in the context of life medicalization: philosophical and anthropological aspects of the problem // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 47—54. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-47-54.

Abstract

Introduction. A man of today inevitably acquires the status of a patient in the context of preventive medicine, even when he is healthy. But at the same time, he or she becomes an object of influence both from medicine itself and from numerous social institutions and commercial structures, in addition to health institutions, which proclaimed their mission to ensure human well-being. The purpose of the study is to comprehend the philosophical and anthropological aspects of the patient’s phenomenon and clarify basic foundations of transforming a patient’s consciousness in the context of progressive life medicalization.

Methods. The methodological basis of the research comprises sociocultural, hermeneutic, existentialphilosophical and phenomenological approaches. The research is based on M. Heidegger’s anthropological ontology, E. Giddens’ existential ontology; M. Foucault’s concept of life medicalization; P.D. Tishchenko’s concept of transforming bio-power in modern culture.

Scientific novelty of the research. The author has developed a hypothesis for the principles of forming individual and mass patient consciousness, which determines a modern person’s way of being in the context of life medicalization.

Results. Suffering from the fear of the existence finiteness becomes the existential foundation of the modern patient’s consciousness, while the existential and rational foundations of the patient consciousness of the modern enlightened individual are mutually mediated. The link in their mutual mediation is believing in the possibility of achieving the ideal health, formed in modern socio-cultural conditions. In the situation of total life medicalization, in which health is understood as a prosperous existence, a special way of human being is formed on the basis of the individual patient’s consciousness. The “effect” of the life medicalization is the emergence of a mass patient consciousness – the fear of losing health forms the ideology of a medicalized society in which every individual becomes a patient.

Conclusions. The progress of biomedicine is able to determine the crisis of human identity. In this regard, it is important to clarify the philosophical concepts of health and illness in the context of the modern sociocultural situation, which allows to determine the possible ideal of health within the framework of medical interventions that are safe for the human essence and capable of providing “ontological safety” when healing an individual.

Keywords:

patient phenomenon,

patient consciousness,

medicalization,

bio-power,

bio-policy

 

 

 

 

POWER

 

 

Zorin V.A. Political leadership in the context of local self-government reform in Chelyabinsk: political and psychological analysis // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 55—68. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-55-68.

Abstract

Introduction. The paper contains political and psychological profiles of the local self-government deputies in the city of Chelyabinsk. The purpose of the study is to examine how municipal reform in 2014 influenced institutional opportunities for creating a new model of political leadership in terms of its effectiveness on political and psychological level.

Methods. The author’s approach is based on the combination of political and psychological techniques, such as qualitative content analysis, psychobiography and in-depth interview (for assessing politicians’ images in mass consciousness).

Scientific novelty. The author presumes that political leadership is a complex phenomenon based on institutional and psychological factors. Its institutional framework for the purpose of the research is determined by the municipal reform. The deputies’ psychological profiles are viewed as individual patterns of political behavior shaped as a result of adopting individual psychological characteristics to the demands of political role presumed by the reform’s conceptual foundations.

Results. The data contain evidence that political and psychological profiles of the deputies under analysis in general lack features which make it possible to uncover the institutional potential of the reform. A new model of political leadership presumed by the reform’s conception was supposed to possess such attributes as: 1) widening political representation; 2) enhancing effectiveness of communication between leaders and followers; 3) depoliticizing agenda. The analysis shows that deputies elected under reform on the “inner” level are rigid and reproduce inertial model of political behavior. On the “outer” level their perception is superficial and does not have explicit potential to improve due to revealed unconscious parameters.

Conclusions. Two electoral cycles within the reform did not fully reveal the leadership potential of the deputies. Therefore, the perspectives of its prolongation are viewed by the author as highly problematic.

Keywords:

political leadership,

sub-elite,

local self-government reform,

political personality,

political and psychological profile,

political perception,

politician’s image

 

 

Vydrin O.V. Electoral competition in the elections of the representative local self-government bodies in Chelyabinsk: before and after the 2014 reform // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4(90). P. 69—82. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-69-82.

Abstract

Introduction. The article examines the dynamics of electoral competition over four electoral cycles from 2005 to 2019 as exemplified by forming representative bodies of local self-government in the city of Chelyabinsk. Particular attention is paid to the impact that the transition of Chelyabinsk to a twotier model of forming local self-government bodies in 2014 had on the electoral competition. The purpose of the paper is to study the dynamics of electoral competition in municipal elections in Chelyabinsk before and after the 2014 reform.

Methods. The empirical basis of the study is the database “Electoral competition in the elections of municipal deputies of Chelyabinsk (2005—2019)”, which includes 414 observation units. The analysis of the empirical material is carried out according to the method of G.V. Golosov’s triangle of relative sizes, proposed for classifying party systems and adapted for analyzing elections in single-mandate constituencies.

Scientific novelty. The author suggests a methodology for analyzing electoral competition in singlemandate constituencies. For the first time, the phenomenon of “controlled competition” is analyzed on the basis of 4 municipal elections cycles.

Results. The analysis makes it possible to speak about fluctuations in electoral competition, its decline in 2009 and 2014 compared to the 2005 elections and increasing by the 2019 elections Conclusions. The “controlled competition” was formed in Chelyabinsk in the period preceding the reform of 2014. The reform introduced a level of local self-government, the effectiveness and necessity of which is not obvious with the existing design of the electoral system. In the course of the reform, the principal-agent model of relations between local self-government bodies and state authorities was finally consolidated. The reform contributed to conserving the “controlled competition”.

Keywords:

local government reform,

elections,

electoral systems,

electoral competition,

two-tier model,

municipal political leadership,

Golosov’s triangle of relative sizes

 

 

 

 

ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

 

 

Gordeev S.S., Kocherov A.V., Merker V.V. Analyzing the transformation of “green zones” in a heterogeneous social space: as exemplified by the agglomeration of Chelyabinsk and the city pine forest // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 83—93. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-83-93.

Abstract

The research is focused on the problems of transforming a complex heterogeneous spatial system, urban agglomeration with a unique natural complex. The paper touches upon the following issues: restrictions on spatial development, zoning of territories, transformation of the settlement framework, social transformations, and integration of the most significant city-forming objects. To predict transformations in such a system, a complex multilevel model is considered — “the biosphere core vs. urban environment”. Forming such a model to analyze the prospective development of the territory involves updating the methodology aimed at the systemic socio-ecological-economic analysis of developing heterogeneous spatial systems, integration of cartographic and digital information, adaptation of IT visualization technologies, including the “neogeography” toolkit. In the study the authors analyze the main prospects for the spatial territory development as exemplified by developing the urban environment of the Chelyabinsk agglomeration with a unique “green zone” (Chelyabinsk urban forest), complex multi-level socio-economic system. The main research results create the prerequisites for a significant expansion of the possibilities for analyzing the prospects for sustainable socio-ecological-economic development of complex spatial systems with unique natural objects and effective management of regional development.

Keywords:

region,

sustainable development,

spatial transformation,

agglomeration,

biosphere environment,

neogeography,

visualization

 

 

Gordeev S.S., Zyryanov S.G., Averyanova D.V. Visualizing migration processes in the Southern Urals’ cities: from the social space transforming to its deforming // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 94—106. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-94-106.

Abstract

The authors present the results of studying migration processes as one of the factors that determine the transformation of the regional social space. Applying migration indicators to assessing prospective spatial changes presupposes a multivariate analysis of developing complex heterogeneous systems. The version of applying problem-oriented visualization tools presented by the authors significantly expands the possibilities of such an analysis. Assessment, systematization and subsequent classification of migration characteristics are considered within the framework of a multi-stage graphical digital analysis procedure. The problems of migration dynamics characterize a number of problems of the incipient deformation of social space. The main provisions and results of the study are presented as exemplified by the five largest urban areas of the Chelyabinsk region. The key contradictions generated by the processes of regional migration are presented for various urban areas of one of the leading industrial regions of the Urals. These are contradictions: dynamics of population inflow — outflow; the ratio of the balance of migration and migration flows, etc. The results of the study make it possible to proceed to more complex models of spatial reconstruction and sustainable development of territories. Considering such models lays the groundwork for passing on to a controlled transformation in the spatial development of territories and reducing the signs of social space deformation.

Keywords:

spatial transformation,

sustainable development of development,

migration,

region,

models,

analysis,

visualization

 

 

 

 

CULTURE

 

 

Pogorelskaya E.Yu., Chernov L.S. Philosophy of mastery (as exemplified by P.P. Bazhov’s legacy // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 107—119. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-107-119.

Abstract

The work is devoted to the philosophy of mastery presented in the tales of the Ural writer Pavel Petrovich Bazhov. The basis of the phenomenon of mastery is the classical philosophy of Plato in its Socratic version. The authors of the article see it as their goal to prove the close relationship between the practical handicraft Ural art, represented in the mythology and literature of P.P. Bazhov, and the classical metaphysical attitudes of European philosophy. The personality of the master becomes a cementing link between the natural world and the world of culture. Mastery in its philosophical and practical form acts as a support for the natural attitude towards nature, art, and towards man in general. The authors decipher the phenomenon of mastery in the tales of P.P. Bazhov, analyze his modes and the specifics of manifestation. Ural tales of P.P. Bazhov in describing the phenomena of mastery and genuine creative attitude to nature repeat the structure of the classical attitude to the world and logically correspond to the structure of the creative attitude of the master poet to the object he creates. The specificity of the Ural artcraftsmanship lies in the fact that the personality of the master is embodied not in an ideologist, not in a religious preacher, not in an intellectual, but in a master who interacts with the elements of nature as concretely and closely as possible. The work immerses P.P. Bazhov’s legends, written during the Soviet period of Russian history, in the global context of research into the nature of genuine living creativity, and also emphasizes the regional and very special specific aspect in the Ural mastery.

Keywords:

Bazhov’s tales,

philosophy of the craft,

nature of the thing,

master,

technical,

talent,

love,

genuine,

The Mistress of the Copper Mountain,

Danilo-the-craftsman

 

 

Bogdanova V.O. Methodological foundations for applying the hermeneutic approach in teaching the humanities. Part 1. Basic principles of hermeneutics // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 120—127. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-120-127.

Abstract

The article raises the problem of the compliance of the education system with the requirements of the new time, since this system continues to rely on the knowledge paradigm, ignoring the fact that in an oversaturated information environment, knowledge quickly depreciates and becomes irrelevant. The author comes to the conclusion that a person will quickly adapt to new realities if the education system does not focus on obtaining readymade knowledge, but on developing the ability to independently acquire the necessary knowledge, critically assess it and generate, on this basis, new ideas for effectively solving life problems. To reach the goal a hermeneutic approach should be used in the process of studying the humanities. In the research, the author reveals the educational potential of hermeneutics, the essence of which is to activate the cognitive process, develop the skills of productive work with different sources of information. In the article, the author describes the basic principles of working with text, which allow

a deeper assimilation of the material, which opens up prospects for further research — to develop and test an understanding technique that can be used to study verbal texts.

Keywords:

hermeneutics,

interpretation,

verbal text,

visual text,

art of understanding,

principles of hermeneutics

 

 

Novikova O.N. Gamification of a person’s spatial and temporal existence in the context of virtual reality // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 128—137. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-128-137.

Abstract

The article considers the spatial and temporal changes manifested in the virtual form of gamification of existence. The definition of the virtual form of gamification of existence is given. On the basis of included observation, the spatial and temporal transformations of socio-cultural reality are rethought, and the philosophical-anthropological approach makes it possible to establish the dependence of the strategies of individual and group behaviour on the inclusion of game actions in the virtual existence. The analysis of the virtual form of gamification of existence as an event and as a co-being is given. The virtual form of gamification of existence is supported by artificially created events, presented as serious incidents, replaced by new ones for tomorrow. The transformation of the structure of free time is considered, which allows transferring most of the life of a contemporary into leisure. The spatial and temporal model of the virtual form of gamification of human existence visually and mentally dissolves the contemporary in the virtual gaming environment. A contemporary, acting out the events, appears in the form of bricolage, multiple images demonstrating strategies of both personal and group behavior. In the virtual interface, time becomes human-sized, allowing in others to see themselves. The space-time boundaries of the virtual form of gamification of existence negate the authenticity of real life, replacing and displacing it with experimental simulation that forms dependence.

Keywords:

virtual form of human existence,

gamification,

space,

time,

event,

co-existence

 

 

 

 

SCIENTIFIC LIFE

 

 

Markvart E., Nechaeva S.V. Managing sustainable development of Russian regions in the new reality: results of the all-Russian scientific and practical conference (October 26, 2021, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation // Socium i vlast’. 2021. № 4 (90). P. 138—143. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2021-4-138-143.

Abstract

The article is focused on reviewing and analyzing the results of the All-Russian scientific and practical conference “Managing sustainable development of Russian regions in the new reality» held in Chelyabinsk on October 26, 2021, and it is a digest of the main conference events.

Keywords:

conference,

sustainable development,

lean management technologies,

development of territories