Annotation № 4 (84) 2020

 

 

SOCIUM

 

 

Kovba D.M. Eugenics as a direction of scientific thought and practice of human selection in the late 19th — early 21st centuries // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 4 (84). P. 7—19. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-4-07-19.

Abstract

Introduction. The article raises the problem of eugenics as a direction of scientific thought and practice of improving the human species. The modern advances in reproductive medicine, the development of biology, the emergence of methods for editing the human genome have updated the debate around eugenics. The aim of the work is a comprehensive study of the discourse and practice of eugenics in the period of the 19th — 21st centuries. This aim involves solving a number of tasks: 1) analysis of the historical context and prerequisites for the eugenics emergence; 2) the study of the institutionalization and practical implementation of its ideas in Western countries in the period until the end of World War II; 3) research on the position of eugenics after the war and the transition of discussions to the mainstream of genetics, bioethics, transhumanism; 4) study of the modern discourse of eugenics, ethical issues and the degree of government intervention in population reproduction.

Methods. The author uses the historical-retrospective method, which makes it possible to comprehensively consider the context of the emergence and development of eugenics, the comparative method (when comparing the characteristic features of the «old» (authoritarian, forced) and «new» (democratic, based on personal choice) eugenics), the institutional approach ( when identifying the main institutions involved in the development, dissemination, implementation of the ideas of eugenics) and a discursive approach (to study modern discussions about the «new» eugenics and related ethical problems).

Scientific novelty of the research. A comprehensive study of eugenics has been carried out, a connection has been established between the «old» and «new» eugenics, and their similarities and differences have been investigated.

Results. The need to distinguish eugenics as a theory of human selection and as a practice has been proven, and the latter, depending on the political, cultural and socio-economic situation in the country, can take a variety of forms: from counseling and preventive measures to racial cleansing. It was found that population growth, urbanization, mass migration, instability in society, combined with the ideas of modernism about social order by the forces of science and technology, contributed to the spread of eugenics ideas in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. After the Nuremberg trials, the concept under study temporarily dropped out of scientific discourse. The article examines in detail the socio-economic and other preconditions that contributed to the revival of interest in eugenics in the 60s of XX century and at the present stage. It is shown that today part of the discussion has shifted to the mainstream of genetics, bioethics and transhumanism.

Conclusions. It has been established that discussions about eugenics run up against the problem of breeding control, which means that they raise the question of who should perform selection, how, what are its criteria. The ethical aspects of introducing control are complicated by the fact that perceptions of the «norm» and the degree of permitted interference depend on the particular society.

Key concepts:

eugenics,

genetics,

«new» eugenics,

sterilization,

euthanasia,

artificial selection,

gene editing,

human rights

 

 

Zaitseva R.V., Voronina L.I. Children with orphan diseases: a comparative analysis of social welfare support measures // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 4 (84). P. 20—29. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-4-20-29.

Abstract

Introduction. The inadequacy of the support measures provided to children with orphan diseases is exacerbated by the trend towards an increase in the number of children with such a diagnosis. Orphan diseases also include diseases caused by primary immunodeficiency or congenital errors of immunity, which are life-threatening. However, these people are part of society and require attention from it, and social and economic measures from the state. Most of them, with proper treatment, socialization and appropriate government support, can lead a normal life and live a full life.

Scientific novelty of the research. On the basis of the study results, the authors contribute to clarifying the principles used in the implementation of the security function of the social state. The targeting of social support measures must be supplemented with the principles of social justice and freedom to choose ways to meet the needs of specific categories of citizens, understood as follows. The welfare state supports those citizens who need it most of all, namely, the poor. Specific categories of citizens can satisfy their needs, while having the opportunity to choose. This opportunity arises thanks to the receipt of targeted assistance in the form of monthly or annual subsidies. Families with children with orphan diseases should also be included in these categories. If they have the right to receive annual government subsidies, they will be able to spend these funds depending on the current needs due to the state of health of their children with orphan diseases (for the purchase of socially important food products; medicines, medical nutrition, and various services). The aim of the work is to study the problems of providing support measures to children with orphan diseases in the context of the current model of the welfare state. The article analyzes the satisfaction of patients with congenital immunity errors with various types of state support, identifies problems that reduce their satisfaction.

Methods. The authors use methods such as comparative analysis, study of regulatory legal acts, sociological analysis.

Results. On the basis of the study results the effectiveness of measures of state support for children with orphan diseases, studying the best experience of foreign countries, proposals were made to clarify the principles used to implement the security function by the social state, to expand the composition of the subjects involved in providing support measures analyzed in the article.

Conclusions. The results obtained make it possible to assert that the targeted approach, which is basic in the model of the welfare state, does not cover most of the problems of children with innate immunity errors and, accordingly, the families that represent their interests.

Key concepts:

targeted approach,

support measures,

orphan diseases,

congenital errors of immunity,

welfare state

 

 

 

 

ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

 

 

Artemova O.V., Logacheva N.M., Savchenko A.N. Assessment of the regions’ technological capabilities for the development of human potential (as exemplified by the subjects of the Ural and Siberian federal districts) // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 4 (84). P. 30—46. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-4-30-46.

Abstract

Introduction. Developing human potential, improving the population’s life quality of the regions are the unconditional priorities of the regional socio-economic policy. The implementation of such priorities requires an objective assessment of the existing socio-economic situation of the Russian Federation’s constituent entities, an analysis of the conditions for regional development, a search for economic growth drivers, and the development of effective mechanisms for implementing priorities. The designated issues are in the area of scientists’ and specialists’ close attention, whose range of scientific research and applied practices is constantly replenished. In this regard, the article expands the understanding of the complexity of the regions’ socio-economic and technological development, and various aspects of the processes of regional development are considered on the basis of the proposed model, the essence of which is represented by the triad “conditions-factors-results”. Within the framework of the proposed triad, «conditions» were determined by the socio-economic situation of the region, scientific, technological and digital «factors» were considered as drivers of development; and “results” were investigated through social parameters that reflect the level of human development. Taking into account the importance of achieving social results in the framework of technological development, studies aimed at studying the interdependence of the processes of technological transformation and human development seem to be very timely and relevant.

Purpose. Reveal the mutual influence of the scientific and technical potential and the level of digitalization of the territory, as factors of socio-economic development, on the human potential of the region.

Methods. For the study, a statistical analysis was used based on data from Rosstat, Moscow School of Management Skolkovo, RIA Rating; correlation analysis; methods of comparative analysis, rating, grouping and positioning of regions.

The scientific novelty of the research consists in the developed model of regional development, the content of which is described by the triad “conditions-factorsresults”. The conditions of regional development are considered as opportunities to achieve the set goal, factors - as catalysts for technological development of territories, results - as an increase in human potential. At the same time, the model has reproductive characteristics, since it provides for direct and feedback connections, namely: the achieved «results» affect and change the «conditions» that form the updated «factors», which in turn generate new «results». The resulting cumulative effect of the technological development of the regions is converted into the strengthening and development of human potential.

Results and Conclusions. The authors conducted a study on the influence of integral indicators of the socioeconomic situation of regions, the level of scientific and technical potential and digitalization on the human development index of the regions of the Ural and Siberian federal districts. The comparison of the regions was carried out both separately for each federal district and jointly for all regions of the two districts. The grouping and positioning of regions in the study of the triad «conditions-factors-results» made it possible to identify the strongest regions where a favorable socio-economic situation, high digital and scientific and technical potential contribute to the development of human potential. In contrast, less prosperous regions (from the standpoint of conditions and factors of technological development) are not capable of a technological breakthrough and are limited in their impact on human potential. The unevenness of digital development and the scientific and technical potential of the regions was established, and the leading regions and outsider regions characterized by unequal opportunities for technological development were identified. The positioning of the regions made it possible to identify groups for which measures are needed to expand opportunities for technological development. The influence of the level of digitalization and scientific and technical potential on the human development index was established, which made it possible to identify regions, one of which is advisable to be included in interregional interaction (partnerships) to enhance the use of their specific capabilities, while others - to overcome the lag in the studied areas of development.

Key concepts:

region,

socio-economic conditions for development,

technological transformation,

scientific and technical factors of development,

digitalization,

human potential,

human development index

 

 

 

 

 

CULTURE

 

 

Kuzovenkova Yu.A. The norm and deviation boundaries in the subcultural aspect // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 4 (84). P. 47—55. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-4-47-55.

Abstract

Introduction. The article examines the role of youth culture (in particular, counterculture and subculture) in reformatting the modern sociocultural space. As long ago asin the 1970s. the researchers pointed out that young people, showing their active position, change the realities of the socio-cultural space in which their parents lived. The research is based on the materials of the graffiti and street art subculture, as an informal artistic practice. The graffiti subculture emerged among African American teenagers in the 1970s in New York City. The first label that this subculture has been endowed with by society and city authorities is vandalism. However, in the late 1970s early 1980s graffiti is involved in the sphere of the art world institutions activities (private galleries) and becomes in demand among collectors. Street art emerges under its influence. The aim of the study is to reveal due to what characteristics of the socio-cultural space the transition from deviation (vandal practice) to the asserting norm became possible.

Methods. The methodological basis of the research is the theory of generations by K. Mannheim and his concept of «fresh contact», which indicates the rethinking of the previously assimilated sociocultural experience by the subjects of culture. Another methodological basis is the concept of rhizome, introduced into scientific circulation by the philosophers J. Deleuze and F. Guattari.

Scientific novelty of the research. It is shown how the rhizomatic principle of organizing culture is realized during the transition of youth practice from the space of deviant, in accordance with social norms, actions into the institutionalized space of the art world.

Results. Using the example of the metamorphosis that the youth subculture of graffiti underwent in the late 20th — early 21st centuries, the author shows how the boundaries between norm and deviation are shifting in modern society.

Conclusions. The rhizom principle, clearly manifested in the organization of the space of postmodern culture, allows graffiti and street art to make the above transition. The fall of the great narrative in the art world leads to the loosening of hierarchies and creates an opportunity for the integration of once marginal phenomena into the space of official art. K. Mannheim’s concept of «fresh contact» is effective in the study of postmodern culture.

Key concepts:

youth culture,

counterculture,

subculture,

generations,

vandalism

 

 

 

Bogdanova V.O. Analysis of the role-play “Ethics of life. Ancient philosophers’ experience”// Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 4 (84). P. 55—70. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-4-56-70

Abstract

The article is aimed at studying the use of philosophical practices in the educational process and everyday life. The author proceeds from the idea that ancient philosophy provides rich material for understanding a person’s lifestyle, on the basis of which anyone can create a set of spiritual exercises, philosophical practices for self-knowledge and selfdevelopment. In the research, the author describes the experience of role-playing, participating, in which students independently developed philosophical practices, based on the ideas and value principles of ancient schools. The author conducts a detailed analysis of the effectiveness of using these practices for the processes of self-knowledge and self-development.

Key concepts:

philosophical practices,

self-knowledge,

self-development,

ancient philosophical schools,

spiritual exercises

 

 

Dyadyk N.G. Practices of self-knowledge in Buddhism and modern philosophical education // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 4 (84). P. 71—81. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-4-71-81.

Abstract

Introduction. The article is focused on studying the self-knowledge techniques used in Buddhism and their application in teaching philosophy. The relevance of the study is due to the search for new approaches to studying philosophy, including approaches related to philosophical practice, as well as the interest of modern scientists in the problem of consciousness. The problem of consciousness is interdisciplinary and its study is of practical importance for philosophers, psychologists, linguists, specialists in artificial intelligence. Buddhism as a philosophical doctrine provides rich material for the study of the phenomenon of consciousness, which does not lose its relevance today. A feature of the Buddhist approach to consciousness is that it has an axiological orientation that is directly related to the problem of self-knowledge. The practices of self-knowledge used in Buddhism enable a person to become happier and more harmonious, which is so important for each of us. The aim of the study is to conduct a philosophical analysis of Buddhist practices of self-knowledge and self-transformation in order to use them in the educational process.

Methods: the author uses general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction; phenomenological method to identify the intentions that are key for consciousness. The author also uses the hermeneutical method to interpret Buddhist texts. The method of introspection as self-observation of consciousness is used in Buddhist meditation techniques. The scientific novelty of the study is that we approach the study of extensive material on Buddhism in the context of the problem of selfknowledge, which is inextricably linked with the Buddhist concept of consciousness. The revealed and studied Buddhist techniques of self-knowledge have been adapted for teaching philosophy.

Results. A philosophical analysis of the literature on Buddhism in the context of the problem of self-knowledge was carried out. As a result of the analysis, Buddhist techniques for working with consciousness, such as meditation, the method of pondering Zen koans, the method of getting rid of material attachments, or the practice of austerities, were studied and described. A philosophical analysis of various Buddhist meditation techniques showed that they are based on the Buddhist concept of consciousness, which denies the existence of an individual “I”, considers the “I” to be nothing more than a combination of various dharmas, therefore the purpose of meditation in Buddhism is to identify oneself with one’s own “I”, to achieve a state of voidness in which we must comprehend our true identity. The method of pondering Zen koans is also one of the techniques for working with one’s consciousness in Buddhism. As a result of deliberation of these paradoxical miniatures, a person goes beyond the boundaries of logical thinking; there is a transition from the level of profane consciousness to the level of deep consciousness. The basis of the method of getting rid of material attachments or the practice of austerities in Buddhism is the concept of the middle path. We have established a similarity between the method of getting rid of material attachments, the concept of the middle path and minimalism as a way of life.

Findings. Elements of the Buddhist practices of self-transformation can be successfully used in the teaching of philosophy at the university as a practical aspect of studying this discipline, forming students with the idea of philosophy as a way of life leading to positive self-transformation. Studying the practical aspects of Buddhist philosophy contributes to the formation of tolerance, awareness, education of humanism and altruism, and the skills of psycho-emotional self-regulation.

Key concepts:

consciousness,

zen,

koan,

middle way,

meditation

 

 

 

 

HISTORY

 

 

Nekhamkin V.A., Nekhamkin A.N. Occupational personnel selection during military operations (based on the memoirs of military leaders during the Great Patriotic War): socio-philosophical analysis // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 4 (84). P. 82—93. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-4-82-93.

Abstract

Introduction. Taking the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army of 1941—1945 as an example the authors identify features of the personnel selection in the army during military operations, conditions, requirements, criteria, qualities necessary for promotion to higher command positions. The aim of the study is to identify the mechanism of personnel selection in the armed forces during military operations.

Methods. The authors use the following general scientific methods: modeling, structural and functional, systemic and comparative analysis; movement from the abstract to the concrete and from the concrete to the abstract. The authors make use of P.A. Sorokin’s theory of vertical mobility. For further research of the problem, the methodology of synergetics and counterfactual modeling of the past can be involved.

Scientific novelty of the research. The following existing concepts of the Red Army officers’ dynamics in 1941—1945 are generalized: positive, negative, moral and psychological selection. Their basic concepts and shortcomings are revealed. An initiativeintellectual concept of the officers’ selection in war is formulated on the basis of P. Sorokin’s theory of vertical mobility. The author identify specific conditions, requirements, and criteria influencing the selection of commanders during the war.

Results. A clear opposition to the conditions, requirements and selection criteria in peacetime and wartime is given. The following specific criteria for selecting officers of the Red Army during the war are highlighted: the presence of combat experience; non-conformism; the ability to take personal responsibility; analyze and correct errors; nonstandard thinking. Military action creates specific conditions that give rise to the selection criteria for commanders.

Conclusions. The selection criteria for personnel in peacetime and wartime armies differ sharply. At the beginning of battle actions, stereotyped commanders prevailed. Such people are replaced by commanders who are able to go beyond the established canons, orders of the chiefs. The work presents a diagram showing the stages of selecting officers in a war: military actions — conditions — selection criteria - requirements — new qualities of a person adapted to combat operations. This leads to the success of military operations, and, consequently, to the promotion of officers in rank and position.

Key concepts:

personnel selection,

the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army,

the Great Patriotic War,

vertical and horizontal mobility,

concept

 

 

 

 

 

SCIENTIFIC LIFE

 

 

Borisov S.V. Philosophical practice during the pandemic (based on the results of the International Online Conference on Philosophical Practice ICPP 2020) // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 4 (84). P. 94—103. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-4-94-103.

Abstract

The article is an overview of the events of the International Online Conference on Philosophical Practice, which took place on July 28-31 on the electronic platform of the South Ural State University, organized by the University Department of Philosophy and the Association of Practical Philosophers “Ratio” with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 20- 011-22002).

Key concepts:

philosophical practice,

philosophizing,

methods of philosophizing,

philosophical associations,

schools of philosophy