Abstract № 2 (82) 2020

 

 

SOCIUM

 

 

Zyryanov S.G., Lukin A.N. Role of formal and informal institutions in the civil society development // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 2 (82). P. 7—18. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-7-18.

Abstract

Today, scientific discussions on the specifics of the development of civil society in Russia do not stop. The institutional approach allows us to look at this problem through the prism of formal and informal institutions existing in society. Researchers and practitioners should not focus only on the rule of law, official prescriptions and orders, setting the framework for interactions between authorities and citizens, promoting private initiatives, and realizing the rights and freedoms of the population. If they do not correspond to the prevailing norms, stereotypes, ways of thinking and actions for centuries, then the most useful, at first glance, innovations in the political and social sphere may not take root. This does not mean, however, that informal institutions remain unchanged under any circumstances. They also evolve. This process can be targeted. It is important to understand all the actors involved in the development of civil society in our country.

Key concepts:

civil society,

state,

formal institutions,

informal institutions

 

 

Marinoff L. Humanitarian therapy as a means of protecting against detriments of technological community // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 2 (82). P. 19—28. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-19-28.

Abstract

Globalization and the digital revolution are transforming human civilization in unprecedented ways, in large measure via innovation as well as imposition of emergent technologies on growing numbers of consumers. While these transformations confer undeniable benefits to humanity, the benefits are bundled with a corresponding set of detriments. This paper does not contest the benefits, but confronts the detriments. It appeals to humanities therapy as a remedy for many of the cognate problems experienced by individuals and societies alike, problems that stem from overexposure to technologies and underexposure to humanities.

Key concepts:

technosociety,

monoculture,

detriments,

cognitive deficits,

behavioral deficits

 

 

 

 

POWER

 

 

Golovin M.S. Theoretical aspects and discursive practice of the right-wing ideology in the political processes of modern Europe // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 2 (82). P. 29—40. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-29-40.

Abstract

Introduction. The article discusses the main approaches to the concept “right radicalism” in modern Russian and foreign political science. In addition, the author shows how actors in political processes use ideology in the framework of political struggle as exemplified by the ideological discourse of the far-right British National Party. The aim of the study is to trace the specifics of constructing the nationalist discourse of the rightwing political forces in modern Europe (using the example of the British National Party) and formulate the author’s definition of the term “right-wing radicalism”.

Methods. The author uses comparative and historical-retrospective methods to comprehensively consider the phenomenon of the right-wing radicalism, as well as discourse analysis of a political party’s text, which contributes to a better understanding of the features constructing the discourse of these actors in political processes.

Scientific novelty of the study. The work provides comprehensive analysis of the concept “right  radicalism” in the context of political processes of modern Europe, the author suggests his own definition of the phenomenon considered.

Results. From the vast scientific heritage devoted to issues of the right-wing radicalism, ideology, and functioning of right-wing political parties, the author choses several approaches presented in both domestic and foreign political science, which makes it possible to disclose essential ideas of the “right-wing radicalism”. In addition, as a result of the discourse analysis of the British National Party program document, the author identifies the main points that are key to the nationalist discourse of the modern European right-wing radical party.

Conclusions. As a result of the study, we can conclude that the concept “right radicalism” is one of the most debatable in modern political science and the relevance of its study is not in doubt. The analysis of the program document of one of the oldest extreme right-wing parties in Europe shows that ideological discourse is formed from various components and, using various methods, the researcher can analyze its structure in detail, understanding how political forces form this discourse within the framework of the political struggle.

Key concepts:

right radicalism,

right extremism,

the United Kingdom,

British National Party,

nationalist discourse,

European Union

 

 

 

 

STATE AND LAW

 

 

Ershov Yu.G. Farce of the authoritarian regime: on the issue of amendments to the Russian Federation Constitution — 2020 // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 2 (82). P. 41—49. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-41-49.

Abstract

The article is devoted to assessing the reasons and meaning of amendments to the Russian Federation Constitution made by the current political regime. The manner in which the amendments were adopted together with their content demonstrates inability of the state and the political system as a whole to govern and rule in accordance with the principles and norms of democracy and law. The concept of “unworthy governing” is used to characterize the existing mechanism of power and management of society in Russia.

Key concepts:

Constitution,

democracy,

state,

farce,

authoritarianism,

“unworthy governing”

 

 

 

 

 

ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

 

 

Nesterova K.V. Monetary policy special features in the context of low interest rates // Socium i vlast’. 2019. № 6 (80). P. 50—64. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-50-64.

Abstract

Introduction. The paper considers a wide range of monetary policy rules: integral stabilization, NGDP targeting, price level targeting, raising the inflation target, introducing negative nominal interest rates etc. The author also considers discretionary policy used by central banks when the nominal rate is close to zero, such as dramatic preventive cut of the key interest rate and interventions in the open markets with the aim of cutting long-term interest rates. The relevance of this problem is supported by global long-term macroeconomic and demographic factors, such as the dynamics of oil prices and the aging of the population. The aim of the paper is to identify the most effective monetary policy rules in order to reduce the risk of a nominal interest rate falling to zero.

Methods. Analysis of the background and the results of general equilibrium models modeling monetary policy is carried out. Analysis of the role of current global trends (based on statistics) in aggravating the problem of declining interest rates.

Scientific novelty of the research. The author systematizes the conclusions of modern macroeconomic theory, which offers a number of monetary rules making it possible to reduce the likelihood of falling into the zero bound of interest rate.

Results. The effectiveness of monetary rules such as targeting nominal GDP and price levels in preventing the nominal interest rate from falling to zero is shown, primarily due to more efficient public expectations management which is a weak point of discretionary intervention.

Conclusions. Under the current global factors for many developed countries and some oil-exporters, the downward trend in nominal rates persists. Combined with slowdown in economic growth, such threat may have negative consequences for the Russian economy. In this case, it seems reasonable to stick to the inflation target above 2% per year and in the future to consider switching to targeting the price level or nominal GDP.

Key concepts:

monetary policy,

zero lower bound,

inflation targeting,

price level targeting,

NGDP targeting.

JEL: E12, E31, E52, E58

 

 

Artemova O.V., Savchenko A.N. Inhomogeneity of the regional space and its impact on the population life quality in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 2 (82). P. 65—79. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-65-79.

Abstract

Introduction. The authors clarify and expand the concepts of heterogeneity properties of regional socio-economic and digital spaces. Heterogeneity of space is associated with the regional uneven development and results in their socio-economic and digital differentiation, which, in turn, determines unequal conditions for ensuring the population’s life quality. In the context of the study, heterogeneity of the regional space is defined as a property of uneven spatial development of the Russian Federation’s constituent entities according to the territorial, sectoral, and temporary characteristics that determine and affect the level and quality of life of the population.

The citizens’ life quality throughout the country is an absolute priority of economic development at the federal and regional levels. Indeed, only then should we speak of a positive assessment of economic growth when it does not follow the path of the previous inefficient development, but is aimed at achieving a real improvement in people’s wellbeing. Taking into consideration the particular importance of social priorities and their implementation throughout the country, the authors think it necessary to study the properties of the economic space, to determine their impact on the population’s life quality. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of heterogeneity of the regional socio-economic and digital spaces on the population’s life quality in the Russian Federation’s constituent entities.

Methods. To conduct the study, the authors make use of statistical analysis based on the data of the Russian Statistics Agency, Moscow School of Management Skolkovo, Russian Information Agency Rating; content analysis, methods of comparative analysis and positioning of regions.

The scientific novelty of the study consists in expanding ideas about heterogeneity of the regional space from the standpoint of the regional socioeconomic situation and the level of their digitalization, which result in differentiating the Russian Federation’s subjects and unequal conditions for the people’s life, to a different extent affecting the population’s life quality throughout the country. In methodological terms, the study is supplemented by a pairwise comparison of the regional space characteristics and the multivariate positioning of regions in the coordinates: socio-economic space - quality of life; digitalization is a quality of life.

Results. The authors study the impact of integrated indicators of the socio-economic situation of the regions, their digitalization level on the population’s life quality in the Russian Federation’s constituent entities. At the same time, the authors apply a comparison of various integral nature of the regional space indicators used, as a rule, autonomously, for multi-characteristic typologies (groups of regions I—IV and groups of regions A—D), by means of which a group of the most powerful regions was identified where the life quality is associated with the best socio-economic situation and active digitalization of these regions.

Conclusions. It was found that uneven economic and digital territory development leads to interregional differentiation of the population’s life quality, as a result of which the leading regions and the outsider regions are distinguished, characterized by unequal conditions for the citizens’ life. The typology made it possible to identify groups of regions for which selective measures are needed to increase the level and quality of the population’s life. For some regions, the priority is to use their economic potential and new digital technologies, for others, active interregional interaction; the third (the weakest) cannot provide a decent standard of living without profound government support.

Key concepts:

the population’s quality of life,

heterogeneity of the regional space,

uneven development of territories,

social sphere,

socio-economic situation of the regions,

digitalization

 

 

 

 

 

CULTURE

 

 

Skiperskikh A.V. Intellectuals and political discourse of resistance (sketches of Russian culture) // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 2 (82). P. 80—89. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-80-89.

Abstract

In the article, the author shows how the government and the opposition interact in the political process. Actors representing opposition constantly produce political texts illustrating their alternative views. The existence of the opposition subject in a critical state in regards to the existing institutions of power is historically predetermined, which proves an active reflection from prominent theorists of political thought. A free dialogue of the government and the opposition is hardly possible in every single political system. In the case of totalitarian and authoritarian regimes, this dialogue may be difficult. The consequences of free will for the subject of opposition can be quite severe. The author analyzes the political discourse of opposition as exemplified by the Soviet culture. The author is interested in the metaphors of opposition and their political context, which seems to be an inevitable condition and framework limiting creativity of one or another intellectual. The author studies a number of texts of the Soviet culture representatives, who used metaphors of opposition, and had a reputation of troublemakers. Such position of an intellectual generates sanctions of the repressive machine and predetermines very specific forms of presenting texts of opposition and apophasis. For convincing his own arguments, the author constantly turns to the heritage of the USSR representatives of unofficial culture in.

Key concepts:

intellectuals,

political discourse,

resistance,

unofficial culture,

the USSR

 

 

Bogdanova V.O. The worldview attitudes of an existential psychotherapist (based on the seminar of Rimas Kociunas “The picture of human life and the therapeutic process: introduction of an existential psychotherapist”) // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 2 (82). P. 90—101. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-90-101.

Abstract

The article is a description of Rimas Kociunas’ seminar “The picture of human life and the therapeutic process: the introduction of an existential psychotherapist”, held in Moscow from February 13 to 16, 2020. The seminar was devoted to the study of the basic philosophical principles of existential psychotherapy on which work with a client is based. A specificity of existential therapy is the lack of specific technical methods and methods of working with a client, therefore the content of therapeutic work is determined by a particular vision of a person and his problems. From the point of view of existential therapists, the personality is in constant interaction with the world, the result of which is continuous formation; therefore, instead of studying the qualities and structures of the personality, one should study its life world and ways of building relationships with reality.

Key concepts:

existential psychotherapy,

existence,

worldview,

freedom,

uncertainty

 

 

 

 

CRITICISM AND REVIEWS

 

 

Borisov S.V. An essay on the tails connecting us with the world and with each other: a great philosophy in one short story (inspired and based on the book: Tillmanns, M. (2019). Why We Are in Need of Tails, ill. By B. Thornley. Toronto, Iguana Books, 35 p.) // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 2 (82). P. 102—106. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-102-106.

Abstract

The article is a philosophical essay based on Maria Tillmanns’ book Why We Are in Need of Tails (Iguana Books, 2019). In an allegorical form the essay presents many current philosophical issues such as understanding, companionship, communication, attitude towards the Other, and the continuity of cultural tradition.

Key concepts:

philosophy,

companionship,

communication,

understanding,

language,

dialogue

 

 

Rusakov V.M., Rusakova O.F. Review of I.B. Fan’s book “Political ontology of a Russian citizen: content versus form”. Ekaterinburg: Ural Institute of Management — RANEPA branch, 2018 // Socium i vlast’. 2020. № 2 (82). P. 107—111. DOI: 10.22394/1996-0522-2020-2-107-111.

Abstract

The authors consider the philosophical and political problem of citizenship, for a number of reasons constantly relevant to the Russian culture. A peculiar methodological bias of consideration gives originality to the work: the ontology of the phenomenon of citizen and citizenship. The emphasis is made on studying the factors and mechanisms for implementing the political and private rights of a nominal citizen, which shows that the current political order in Russia is characterized by the contradiction between the formal norms of externally modern political institutions and the informal practices of their functioning, the Russian Constitution does not exist in the form of existing law as a system of obligations observed by the parties, and it is reasonable to talk about the existing rental estate order and resource allocation.

Key concepts:

citizen,

citizenship

political culture

rental estate order